||Background Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone suggested to regulate obesity. Objective To investigate the relationship between nesfatin-1 level and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in obese patients, and examine the change in plasma nesfatin-1 level after acupuncture treatment. Methods 64 obese adult patients without diabetes and 58 normal weight control subjects were enrolled in this study. The obese patients were randomly divided into an acupuncture plus diet group (n=32) and a diet only group (n=32). Measurements were repeated after 45 days. Results Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, serum insulin, lipoprotein and insulin resistance measures were significantly higher, and plasma nesfatin-1 level was significantly lower, in obese patients than in normal weight controls. In addition, negative correlations were found between plasma nesfatin-1 level and BMI, waist and hip circumferences. Weight reduction in participants after acupuncture and diet restriction was 7.0% and 4.3%, respectively. Plasma nesfatin-1 level increased from 2.75±1.16 to 3.44±1.28 ng/mL and from 2.86±1.07 to 3.23±1.06 ng/mL in acupuncture and diet groups, respectively; the difference was significant, p<0.05. Conclusions Plasma nesfatin-1 level is reduced in obese adults, and is increased after acupuncture. The beneficial effect of acupuncture on obesity is associated with increased plasma nesfatin-1 level.