||OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) through a sham-controlled trial. We also investigated whether there is a sustained therapeutic effect by completing follow-up assessments after treatment completion. DESIGN: A single center, double-blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS/LOCATION: This study was performed at a university hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea. SUBJECTS: Seventy-three (73) patients with IPD were the subjects. They were randomly assigned to the active treatment group, sham treatment group, or conventional treatment group. INTERVENTIONS: The active treatment group received acupuncture and BVA and the sham group received sham acupuncture and normal saline injections, twice a week for 12 weeks. The conventional treatment group maintained anti-parkinsonian drugs without additional intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II and part III score, postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) score, gait speed and number, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and postural stability at baseline and at 12, 16, and 20 weeks. RESULTS: Sixty-three (63) patients provided a complete data of assessments, including a final follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, a significant difference was observed between the active treatment group and the conventional treatment group. After the end of the treatment, the treatment effects were maintained significantly in the active treatment group only. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the combined treatment of acupuncture and BVA might be safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with IPD.