||OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in combination with RehaCom cognitive training in poststroke patients with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS/DESIGN: This study was a 2 x 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial comparing acupuncture, computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation, and the usual treatment by per-protocol analysis. The trial was completed by 204 stroke patients, including 49 patients in a control group, 52 patients in an acupuncture treatment group, 51 patients in a RehaCom training group, and 52 patients in an acupuncture combined with RehaCom group. All of the patients accepted basic treatment and health education. The interventions continued for 12 weeks (30 minutes per day, 5 days per week). The relative cognitive and functional outcomes were measured at baseline and 12 weeks (at the end of intervention) using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scales. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the functional statuses of the patients in each of the 4 groups showed varying degrees of improvement. Multiple comparisons of the changes in the MMSE, MoCA, and FIM scores indicated that acupuncture combined with RehaCom cognitive training (ACR) had enhanced therapeutic effects on the functional statuses of the stroke patients (P < .05). In addition, ACR had similar therapeutic effects on the functional statuses of the stroke patients according to each of the assessment scales applied (P big up tri, openchange value MMSE = 0.399, P big up tri, openMoCA = 0.794, P big up tri, openFIM = 0.862). The interaction effect values between acupuncture and RehaCom training (acceptance or nonacceptance) were as follows: big up tri, openMMSE: F = 6.251, P = .013; big up tri, openMoCA: F = 4.991, P = .027; and big up tri, openFIM: F = 6.317, P = .013. Further, the main effect values for acupuncture and RehaCom training were both significant (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: There is an interaction effect in the treatment of stroke patients using ACR. The use of acupuncture in combination with RehaCom training has better therapeutic effects on the functional statuses of poststroke patients than the use of either treatment alone, demonstrating the clinical significance of this combination therapy.