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Author Wang, T.; Zhang, Q.; Xue, X.; Yeung, A. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome in china Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2008 Publication The American journal of Chinese medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Chin Med  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 1-24  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Chronic Fatigue; Nervous System Diseases; Fatigue; Moxibustion; Systematic Review  
  Abstract Studies on the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with acupuncture and moxibustion in China were reviewed. All studies concluded the treatments were effective, with response rates ranging from 78.95% to 100%. However, the qualities of the studies were generally poor, and none of them used a RCT design. The common acupoints/sites used in the treatment of CFS, which may reflect the collective experience of acupuncturists in China based on Traditional Chinese Medicine theories can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of CFS in future studies using more scientifically rigorous study designs  
  Address Department of TCM Diagnostics, Preclinical College, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China 100029, China. tianfangwang@hotmail.com  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic
  Disease Category Nervous System Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1262  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Shergis, J.L.; Ni, X.; Jackson, M.L.; Zhang, A.L.; Guo, X.; Li, Y.; Lu, C.; Xue, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A systematic review of acupuncture for sleep quality in people with insomnia Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2016 Publication Complementary Therapies in Medicine Abbreviated Journal Complement Ther Med  
  Volume 26 Issue Pages 11-20  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Sleep Disorders; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorder; Insomnia; Acupuncture  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely used in Asia and increasingly in Western countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of acupuncture for insomnia. METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials from English and Chinese databases. Data were extracted using a predefined form and analysed using RevMan 5.2. We included studies that compared acupuncture to sham/placebo, standard pharmacotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome was sleep quality assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: A total of 30 studies involving 2363 participants were included. Acupuncture point combinations included the use of at least one of the recommended points for insomnia, HT7, GV20, SP6. Pharmacotherapy control was used in 27 studies and sham/placebo in three studies. Cognitive behavioral therapy was not used in any of the studies. Pharmacotherapies in all studies were benzodiazepine receptor agonists, except for one that used an antidepressant. Acupuncture was superior to sham/placebo in terms of PSQI (MD -0.79, 95% CI -1.38, -0.19, I(2)=49%). Acupuncture was also more effective than pharmacotherapy (MD -2.76, 95% CI -3.67, -1.85, I(2)=94%). Most studies were at risk of bias. Some mild adverse events were reported but they were not causally related to the acupuncture treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture compared to sham/placebo and pharmacotherapy showed statistically significant results. However, the evidence is limited by bias in the included studies and heterogeneity. Well-designed studies are needed to confirm the results identified in this review.  
  Address School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorder
  Disease Category Sleep Disorders OCSI Score  
  Notes PMID:27261976 Approved yes  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2055  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kim, S. Y.; Lee, H.; Chae, Y.; Park, H. J.; Lee, H. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses alongside randomised controlled trials of acupuncture Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2012 Publication Acupuncture in medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society Abbreviated Journal Acupunct Med  
  Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 273-285  
  Keywords Systematic Review; Cost Effectiveness; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Miscellaneous; Acupuncture; AcuTrials  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture. METHODS: We identified full economic evaluations such as cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the consequences and costs of acupuncture for any medical condition. Eleven electronic databases were searched up to March 2011 without language restrictions. Eligible RCTs were assessed using the Cochrane criteria for risk of bias and a modified version of the checklist for economic evaluation. The general characteristics and the results of each economic analysis such as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were extracted. RESULTS: Of 17 included studies, nine were CUAs that measured quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and eight were CEAs that assessed effectiveness of acupuncture based on improvements in clinical symptoms. All CUAs showed that acupuncture with or without usual care was cost-effective compared with waiting list control or usual care alone, with ICERs ranging from euro3011/QALY (dysmenorrhoea) to euro22 298/QALY (allergic rhinitis) in German studies, and from pound3855/QALY (osteoarthritis) to pound9951/QALY (headache) in UK studies. In the CEAs, acupuncture was beneficial at a relatively low cost in six European and Asian studies. All CUAs were well-designed with a low risk of bias, but this was not the case for CEAs. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this review demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture. Despite such promising results, any generalisation of these results needs to be made with caution given the diversity of diseases and the different status of acupuncture in the various countries.  
  Address STAR (Studies of Translational Acupuncture Research), Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition N/A
  Disease Category Miscellaneous OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 579  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Franconi, G.; Manni, L.; Schroder, S.; Marchetti, P.; Robinson, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A systematic review of experimental and clinical acupuncture in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2013 Publication Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Abbreviated Journal Evid Based Complement Alternat Med  
  Volume 2013 Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Neoplasms; Chemotherapy Side Effects; Peripheral Neuropathy; Acupuncture; Cancer  
  Abstract Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect that can be very disabling and can limit or delay the dose of chemotherapy that can be administered. Acupuncture may be effective for treating peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the use of acupuncture for CIPN. The systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, CINHAL, and ISI Proceedings. Hand searching was conducted, and consensus was reached on all extracted data. Only papers in the English language were included, irrespective of study design. From 3989 retrieved papers, 8 relevant papers were identified. One was an experimental study which showed that electroacupuncture suppressed CIPN pain in rats. In addition, there were 7 very heterogeneous clinical studies, 1 controlled randomised study using auricular acupuncture, 2 randomized controlled studies using somatic acupuncture, and 3 case series/case reports which suggested a positive effect of acupuncture in CIPN. Conclusions. Only one controlled randomised study demonstrated that acupuncture may be beneficial for CIPN. All the clinical studies reviewed had important methodological limitations. Further studies with robust methodology are needed to demonstrate the role of acupuncture for treating CIPN resulting from cancer treatment.  
  Address Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University, 00133 Rome, Italy.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Chemotherapy Side Effects
  Disease Category Neoplasms OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 337  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author White, A. R.; Ernst, E. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for neck pain Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 1999 Publication Abbreviated Journal Rheumatology (Oxford)  
  Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 143-147  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Laser Acupuncture; Neck Pain; Pain; Physical Therapy; Systematic Review  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there is evidence for or against the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of neck pain. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies that compared needle or laser acupuncture with a control procedure for the treatment of neck pain. Two reviewers independently extracted data concerning study methods, quality and outcome. RESULTS: Overall, the outcomes of 14 randomized controlled trials were equally balanced between positive and negative. Acupuncture was superior to waiting-list in one study, and either equal or superior to physiotherapy in three studies. Needle acupuncture was not superior to indistinguishable sham control in four out of five studies. Of the eight high-quality trials, five were negative. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the hypothesis that acupuncture is efficacious in the treatment of neck pain is not based on the available evidence from sound clinical trials. Further studies are justified  
  Address Department of Complementary Medicine, School of Postgraduate Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, UK  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Neck Pain
  Disease Category Neck Pain OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Leo, R. J.; Ligot, J. S. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture in the treatment of depression Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 97 Issue 1-3 Pages 13-22  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Auricular Acupuncture; Depression; Electroacupuncture; Systematic Review; Depressive Disorder  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has become a popular complementary and alternative treatment approach. This review examined the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of acupuncture treatment of depression. METHODS: RCTs of the treatment of depression with acupuncture were located using MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The methodology of RCTs was assessed using the Jadad criteria, and elements of research design, i.e., randomization, blinding, assessment of attrition rates, were quantified for systematic comparisons among studies. RESULTS: Among the 9 RCTs examined, five were deemed to be of low quality based upon Jadad criteria. The odds ratios derived from comparing acupuncture with control conditions within the RCTs suggests some evidence for the utility of acupuncture in depression. General trends suggest that acupuncture modalities were as effective as antidepressants employed for treatment of depression in the limited studies available for comparison. However, placebo acupuncture treatment was often no different from intended verum acupuncture. LIMITATIONS: The RCTs extracted were limited by small sample sizes, imprecise enrollment criteria, problems with randomization, blinding, brief duration of study and lack of longitudinal follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the findings that the odds ratios of existing literature suggest a role for acupuncture in the treatment of depression, the evidence thus far is inconclusive. However, efforts are being made to standardize complementary approaches to treat depression, and further systematized research into their use is warranted  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Erie County Medical Center, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215, United States  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 672  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Roberts, J.; Huissoon, A.; Dretzke, J.; Wang, D.; Hyde, C. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture for allergic rhinitis Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal BMC Complement Altern Med  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 13-  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Allergies; Respiratory Tract Diseases; Systematic Review; Rhinitis, Allergic;  
  Abstract ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allergies cause a considerable burden to both sufferers and the National Health Service. There is growing interest in acupuncture as a treatment for a range of conditions. Since acupuncture may modulate the immune system it could be a useful treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) sufferers. We therefore assessed the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture in patients with AR by performing a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: Searches (to 2007) were conducted in all major databases for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of AR. No limits were placed on language. Studies were included if they compared acupuncture to a sham or inactive acupuncture treatment (placebo) with or without standard care. Meta-analysis was performed where feasible. RESULTS: Seven relevant RCTs were included after screening and application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The trials were generally of poor quality as assessed by a modified Jadad scale, with the exception of two studies which scored highly. A wide variety of outcomes was measured but most assessed symptom severity on a visual analogue scale. A meta-analysis failed to show any summary benefits of acupuncture treatment for symptom severity scores or serum IgE measures which could not have been accounted for by chance alone. Acupuncture was not associated with any additional adverse events in the trials. CONCLUSION: There is currently insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of acupuncture in patients with AR. A large well conducted RCT, which overcomes identified methodological problems in the existing RCTs, would be required to resolve this question  
  Address  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Rhinitis, Allergic
  Disease Category Respiratory Tract Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 995  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Huang, W.; Kutner, N.; Bliwise, D. L. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review of the effects of acupuncture in treating insomnia Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2009 Publication Sleep medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 73-104  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Auricular Acupuncture; Insomnia; Moxibustion; Scalp Acupuncture; Systematic Review; Sleep Disorders; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorder  
  Abstract To examine the extent to which research supports the use of acupuncture in treating insomnia, a systematic review was conducted that included not only clinical trials, but also case series in both English and Chinese literature. Thirty studies were included in the review, 93% of which showed positive treatment effects of acupuncture in improving various aspects of sleep. Although acupuncture has been demonstrated to be safe and holds great potential to be an effective treatment modality for insomnia, the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies and mixed results from those with sham (or unreal treatment) controls. Of the thirty studies, twelve were clinical trials with only three double-blinded. Only five used sham controls, and of these, four showed statistically significant differences favoring real treatments; however, none evaluated the adequacy of sham assignment. Three studies used actigraphy or polysomnography as objective outcome measures. The considerable heterogeneity of acupuncture techniques and acupoint selections among all studies made the results difficult to compare and integrate. High-quality randomized clinical trials of acupuncture in treating insomnia, with proper sham and blinding procedures will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of acupuncture treatments important to guide future research and clinical practice  
  Address VA Medical Center at Atlanta, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Emory University School of Medicine, 1670 Clairmont Road, Decatur, GA 30033, USA  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Insomnia
  Disease Category Sleep Disorders OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 480  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liu, H.; Li, H.; Xu, M.; Chung, K. F.; Zhang, S. P. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review on acupuncture for trigeminal neuralgia Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2010 Publication Alternative therapies in health and medicine Abbreviated Journal Altern Ther Health Med  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 30-35  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Cranial Nerve Diseases; Trigeminal Neuralgia; Acupuncture  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a commonly seen pain condition with limited treatments available, and acupuncture is widely used for pain conditions, including TN. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for TN. METHODS: English and Chinese databases were searched extensively to identify randomized controlled studies of acupuncture treatment for TN. Selected studies were assessed for methodological quality. Odds ratios (OR) between treatment and control groups were used to assess efficacy. RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria with 506 people in the acupuncture arm and 414 people in the control arm, in which carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as the control treatment. They were all low-quality studies, hence precluding meta-analysis. Only four trials reported that acupuncture was superior to CBZ, and the remaining eight studies showed no difference between the treatment and control groups. Adverse effects of acupuncture, which were reported in three studies, were mild. CONCLUSION: The evidence reviewed previously suggests that acupuncture is of similar efficacy as CBZ but with fewer adverse effects in treatment of TN. However, the evidence is weak because of low methodological quality of the reviewed studies. Further studies with improved methodologies are recommended to support the use of acupuncture for TN.  
  Address School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, PRC.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Trigeminal Neuralgia
  Disease Category Cranial Nerve Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 748  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rubinstein, S. M.; van Middelkoop, M.; Kuijpers, T.; Ostelo, R.; Verhagen, A. P.; de Boer, M. R.; Koes, B. W.; van Tulder, M. W. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review on the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific low-back pain Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2010 Publication European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society Abbreviated Journal Eur Spine J  
  Volume 19 Issue 8 Pages 1213-1228  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Back Pain; Low Back Pain, Chronic;  
  Abstract The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple databases up to December 22, 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with chronic non-specific LBP, which evaluated at least one clinically relevant, patient-centred outcome measure were included. Two authors working independently from one another assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the CBRG and extracted the data. The data were pooled when clinically homogeneous and statistically possible or were otherwise qualitatively described. GRADE was used to determine the quality of the evidence. In total, 35 RCTs (8 SMT, 20 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine), which examined 8,298 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these (2 SMT, 8 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine) were thought to have a low risk of bias. In general, the pooled effects for the studied interventions demonstrated short-term relief or improvement only. The lack of studies with a low-risk of bias, especially in regard to SMT precludes any strong conclusions; however, the principal findings, which are based upon low- to very-low-quality evidence, suggest that SMT does not provide a more clinically beneficial effect compared with sham, passive modalities or any other intervention for treatment of chronic low-back pain. There is evidence, however, that acupuncture provides a short-term clinically relevant effect when compared with a waiting list control or when acupuncture is added to another intervention. Although there are some good results for individual herbal medicines in short-term individual trials, the lack of homogeneity across studies did not allow for a pooled estimate of the effect. In general, these results are in agreement with other recent systematic reviews on SMT, but in contrast with others. These results are also in agreement with recent reviews on acupuncture and herbal medicine. Randomized trials with a low risk of bias and adequate sample sizes are directly needed.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. SM.Rubinstein@vumc.nl  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Low Back Pain, Chronic
  Disease Category Back Pain OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1004  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sui, Y.; Zhao, H. L.; Wong, V. C.; Brown, N.; Li, X. L.; Kwan, A. K.; Hui, H. L.; Ziea, E. T.; Chan, J. C. url  openurl
  Title (up) A systematic review on use of Chinese medicine and acupuncture for treatment of obesity Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2012 Publication Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Abbreviated Journal Obes Rev  
  Volume Issue Pages -  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases; Obesity; Herbal Formula; Acupuncture; Weight Loss  
  Abstract Obesity is a major health hazard and despite lifestyle modification, many patients frequently regain any lost body weight. The use of western anti-obesity drugs has been limited by side effects including mood changes, suicidal thoughts, and gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications. The effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine including Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and acupuncture provide an alternative established therapy for this medical challenge. In this systematic review, we used standard methodologies to search, review, analyse and synthesize published data on the efficacy, safety and relapse of weight regain associated with use of CHM and acupuncture. We also examined the rationale, mechanisms and potential utility of these therapies. A total of 12 electronic databases, including Chinese, English, Korean and Japanese, were searched up to 28 February 2010. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for CHM and/or acupuncture with comparative controls were considered. We used the Jadad scale to assess methodological qualities, the random effect model in the pooled analysis of therapeutic efficacy to adjust for heterogeneity and funnel plots to explore publication bias. After screening 2,545 potential articles from the electronic databases, we identified 96 RCTs; comprising of 49 trials on CHM treatment, 44 trials on acupuncture treatment and 3 trials on combined therapy for appraisal. There were 4,861 subjects in the treatment groups and 3,821 in the control groups, with treatment duration ranging from 2 weeks to 4 months. Of the 77 publications written in Chinese, 75 had a Jadad score <3, while 16 of the 19 English publications had a Jadad score of >3. Efficacy was defined as body weight reduction >/=2 kg or body mass index (BMI) reduction >/=0.5 kg/m(2) . Compared with placebo or lifestyle modification, CHM and acupuncture exhibited respective 'risk ratio' (RR) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.37-2.46) and 2.14 (95% CI: 1.58-2.90) in favour of body weight reduction, with a mean difference in body weight reduction of 4.03 kg (95% CI: 2.22-5.85) and 2.76 kg (95% CI: 1.61-3.83) and a mean difference in BMI reduction of 1.32 kg m(-2) (95% CI: 0.78-1.85) and 2.02 kg m(-2) (95% CI: 0.94-3.10), respectively. Compared with the pharmacological treatments of sibutramine, fenfluramine or orlistat, CHM and acupuncture exhibited an RR of 1.11 (95% CI: 0.96-1.28) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.25) in body weight reduction, mean difference in body weight reduction of 0.08 kg (95% CI: -0.58 to 0.74) and 0.65 kg (95% CI: -0.61 to 1.91), and mean difference in BMI reduction of 0.18 kg m(-2) (95% CI: -0.39 to 0.75) and 0.83 kg m(-2) (95% CI: 0.29-1.37), respectively. There were fewer reports of adverse effects and relapses of weight regain in CHM intervention studies conducted in China than studies conducted outside China. CHM and acupuncture were more effective than placebo or lifestyle modification in reducing body weight. They had a similar efficacy as the Western anti-obesity drugs but with fewer reported adverse effects. However, these conclusions were limited by small sample size and low quality of methodologies.  
  Address Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital; The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Obesity
  Disease Category Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1116  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cheng, P. T.; Wong, M. K.; Chang, P. L. url  openurl
  Title (up) A therapeutic trial of acupuncture in neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patients--a preliminary report Type of Study RCT
  Year 1998 Publication Spinal cord Abbreviated Journal Spinal Cord  
  Volume 36 Issue 7 Pages 476-480  
  Keywords Acu + Usual Care Versus Usual Care; Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Electroacupuncture; Fixed Acupuncture Protocol; RCT; Restricted Modalities, Acupuncture Only; Spinal Cord Injuries; Usual Care Control, Physical; TCM Acupuncture Style; Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic; Urination Disorders; Urologic Diseases; Wounds and Injuries  
  Abstract Eighty patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and neurogenic bladder were studied. Among them, 28 (70%) cases in the control group and 32 (80%) cases in the electroacupuncture group achieved ultimately balanced voiding and were selected for further analysis. The acupuncture group received electroacupuncture at four acupoints: Chung Chi (Conception Vessel CV3), Kuan Yuan (CV4), and bilateral Tzu Liao (Urinary Bladder UB32), in addition to conventional intermittent catheterization program (ICP). Whereas the control group underwent conventional bladder training program with ICP only. The results revealed that the time of achieving balanced voiding was statistically significantly shorter with electroacupuncture than in the control group: 57.1 +/- 22.6 vs 85.2 +/- 27.4 days (P < 0.005) for upper motor neuron lesions, and 55.4 +/- 22.6 vs 83.4 +/- 26.1 days (P < 0.01) for lower motor neuron lesions. However, there was almost no difference between upper motor neuron lesions and lower motor neuron lesions. When acupuncture commenced was alos a factor to influence the results. Those who received acupuncture within 3 weeks after injury had significantly shortened the total days to achieve a balanced bladder, as compared to those who received acupuncture 3 weeks after injury (46.6 +/- 13.2 vs 65.8 +/- 15.4 days, P < 0.005). Our study implied that acupuncture might be beneficial in the management of neurogenic bladder of SCI, and the earlier the patient received electro-acupuncture therapy, the sooner the bladder balanced. On the other hand, we also found that complete spinal cord injury, either with pronounced detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in upper motor neuron lesion or with persistent areflexic bladder in lower motor neuron-lesion, was not affected by acupuncture  
  Address Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 35  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 60  
  Time in Treatment 6 Weeks Condition Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
  Disease Category Urologic Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 154  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lembo, A. J.; Conboy, L.; Kelley, J. M.; Schnyer, R. S.; McManus, C. A.; Quilty, M. T.; Kerr, C. E.; Drossman, D.; Jacobson, E. E.; Davis, R. B.; Kaptchuk, T. J. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Treatment Trial of Acupuncture in IBS Patients Type of Study RCT
  Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal Am J Gastroenterol  
  Volume Issue Pages -  
  Keywords Acu Versus > 1 Control; Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Gastrointestinal Diseases; IBS; Near Verum Acupoint Control; Non Penetrating Sham, Mechanical; RCT; Restricted Modalities, Acupuncture Only; Semi-Individualized Acupuncture Protocol; Sham Control; Traditional Diagnosis Based Point Selection; TCM Acupuncture Style; Wait-List Control; Irritable Bowel Syndrome;  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to compare the effects of true and sham acupuncture in relieving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS:A total of 230 adult IBS patients (75% females, average age: 38.4 years) were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of true or sham acupuncture (6 treatments) after a 3-week “run-in” with sham acupuncture in an “augmented” or “limited” patient-practitioner interaction. A third arm of the study included a waitlist control group. The primary outcome was the IBS Global Improvement Scale (IBS-GIS) (range: 1-7); secondary outcomes included the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS), the IBS Adequate Relief (IBS-AR), and the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL).RESULTS:Although there was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture on the IBS-GIS (41 vs. 32%, P=0.25), both groups improved significantly compared with the waitlist control group (37 vs. 4%, P=0.001). Similarly, small differences that were not statistically significant favored acupuncture over the other three outcomes: IBS-AR (59 vs. 57%, P=0.83), IBS-SSS (31 vs. 21%, P=0.18), and IBS-QOL (17 vs. 13%, P=0.56). Eliminating responders during the run-in period did not substantively change the results. Side effects were generally mild and only slightly greater in the acupuncture group.CONCLUSIONS:This study did not find evidence to support the superiority of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in the treatment of IBS.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 19 May 2009; doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.156  
  Address The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 6  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 262  
  Time in Treatment 3 Weeks Condition Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  Disease Category Gastrointestinal Diseases OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 671  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhang, W.-P.; Onose, Y.; Fujikawa, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Trial Study of Moxibustion with a Warming Needle on Edema Type of Study
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies Abbreviated Journal J Acupunct Meridian Stud  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 20-25  
  Keywords Adult; Edema/physiopathology/*therapy; Female; Hot Temperature; Humans; Moxibustion/*instrumentation/*methods; Needles; Regional Blood Flow/physiology; Skin Temperature/physiology; Young Adult; *edema; *moxibustion; *warm acupuncture  
  Abstract Edema is an accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells or intercellular tissues. In order to examine the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on edema, seven subjects were randomly divided into three groups, that was a Control group, an Acupuncture group (Acp), and an acupuncture and moxibustion group (Acp-Mox). After sitting for 60 minutes keeping their bodies still, the Acp and Acp-Mox subjects were administered acupuncture or acupuncture/moxibustion on the points of Zusanli (ST-36) and Sanyinjiao (SP-6), separately as against the Control group who only lied on the bed after modelization. After modelization at 60 minutes, the skin temperature and blood flow of all the groups were significantly lower in blood flow when compared with premodelization. But shortly after the procedure at 80 minutes, skin temperature in the Acp and Acp-Mox groups were significantly increased when compared with premodelization (vs. 60 minutes, p < 0.05). Moreover, the skin temperature and blood flow of the Acp-Mox group were significantly increased as compared to both the Control and the Acp group at the 80-minute time point. These results indicate that Acp and Mox-Acp could relieve edematous conditions significantly, especially the procedure of moxibustion with warming needle, was effective in improving edema which is often accompanied with cold intolerance and would be a recommended and superior therapy for edema.  
  Address Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie, Japan  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score  
  Notes PMID:28254097 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2207  
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Author Wang, X. Y.; Yuan, S. H.; Yang, H. Y.; Sun, Y. M.; Cheng, F. P.; Zhang, C. l.; Huang, X. C. url  openurl
  Title (up) Abdominal acupuncture for insomnia in women: a randomized controlled clinical trial Type of Study RCT
  Year 2008 Publication Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research Abbreviated Journal Acupunct Electrother Res  
  Volume 33 Issue 1-2 Pages 33-41  
  Keywords Abdominal Acupuncture; Acu Versus Sham + Usual Care; Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Fixed Acupuncture Protocol; Insomnia; Non Penetrating Sham, Mechanical; RCT; Restricted Modalities, Acupuncture Only; Sham Control; Usual Care Control, Pharmaceutical; TCM Acupuncture Style; Verum Acupoint Control; Women's Health; Sleep Disorders; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorder  
  Abstract A randomized single-blind trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of short-term abdominal acupuncture as a novel treatment for insomnia in Chinese women. Forty-four patients between the ages of 22 and 56 were randomly assigned to an acupuncture (n = 23) and a medication group (n = 21). The acupuncture group received abdominal acupuncture once a day for the first three days and once every three days for the remaining 11 days. In addition, every subject in acupuncture group also received a placebo pill once daily. Abdominal acupuncture was administered according to a standardized protocol involving four master and four adjunctive acupoints: Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Guanyuan (CV 4), and Qihai (CV 6); bilateral Shangqu (KI 17), Huaroumen (ST 24), Xiafengshidian, and Qipang. Subjects in the medication group were treated with sham acupuncture at the same time as the acupuncture group and received estazolam once a day. The outcome measure was the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ), administered before and after the trial. Subjects who received abdominal acupuncture lowered their LSEQ scores by an average of 26.32 points (95% CI: 37.34, 15.30). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the effect of abdominal acupuncture in relieving insomnia was still statistically significant. Results indicate that short-term abdominal acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological treatment for relieving insomnia in adult women and has few adverse effects  
  Address Department of Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510000, PR China. zp@gdivdc.com  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 6  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 44  
  Time in Treatment 1.5 Weeks Condition Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorder
  Disease Category Sleep Disorders OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1265  
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Author Weidong Pan; Mingzhe Wang; Mao Li; Qiudong Wang; Shin Kwak; Wenfei Jiang; Yoshiharu Yamamoto url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Actigraph Evaluation of Acupuncture for Treating Restless Legs Syndrome Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM) Abbreviated Journal Evid Based Complement Altern Med  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Restless Legs -- Therapy; Acupuncture; Human; China; Alternative Therapies; Randomized Controlled Trials; Random Assignment; Single-Blind Studies; Funding Source; Actigraphy; Treatment Outcomes -- Evaluation; Male; Female; Middle Age; Adult; Pretest-Posttest Design; Scales; Statistical Significance; Prospective Studies; Simulations; Analysis of Variance; Repeated Measures; T-Tests; P-Value; Data Analysis Software; Descriptive Statistics  
  Abstract We evaluated the effects of acupuncture in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) by actigraph recordings. Among the 38 patients with RLS enrolled, 31 (M = 12, F = 19; mean age, 47.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients were treated with either standard acupuncture (n = 15) or randomized acupuncture (n = 16) in a single-blind manner for 6 weeks. Changes in nocturnal activity (NA) and early sleep activity (ESA) between week 0 (baseline), week 2, week 4, and week 6 were assessed using leg actigraph recordings, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLSRS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Standard but not randomized acupuncture reduced the abnormal leg activity of NA and ESA significantly in week 2, week 4, and week 6 based on the changes in the clinical scores for IRLSRS and ESS in week 4 and week 6 compared with the baseline. No side effects were observed. The results indicate that standard acupuncture might improve the abnormal leg activity in RLS patients and thus is a potentially suitable integrative treatment for long-term use.  
  Address Educational Physiology Laboratory Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan  
  Publisher Hindawi Limited
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score  
  Notes Accession Number: 108824623. Language: English. Entry Date: 20170222. Revision Date: 20170222. Publication Type: journal article; pictorial; research; tables/charts; tracings; randomized controlled trial. Journal Subset: Alternative/Complementary Therapies; Biomedical; Europe; Peer Reviewed; UK & Ireland. Instrumentation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLSRS). Grant Information: This study was sponsored and supported by the NationalNatural Science Foundation of China (81373619) and theShanghai Pujiang Programme of the Science and TechnologyCommission of Shanghai Municipality (09PJ1409300).. NLM UID: 101215021. Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ 108824623 Serial 2321  
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Author Kurath-Koller, S.; Pansy, J.; Mileder, L.P.; Schmölzer, G.M.; Urlesberger, B.; Raith, W. url  openurl
  Title (up) Active Somatic and Psychic Ear Acupuncture Points in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine  
  Volume 22 Issue 10 Pages 788-793  
  Keywords EAR -- Physiology; NEONATAL abstinence syndrome -- Treatment; Acupuncture; ACUPUNCTURE points; APGAR score; Biophysics; CLINICAL trials; Ear; NEONATAL intensive care; PROBABILITY theory; SAMPLING (Statistics); SCIENTIFIC apparatus & instruments; Statistics; DATA analysis; SECONDARY analysis; INTRAVENOUS therapy centers; RANDOMIZED controlled trials; NEONATAL abstinence syndrome; DATA analysis -- Software; DESCRIPTIVE statistics; MANN Whitney U Test; Children; Austria  
  Abstract Background: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs within the first days after birth in newborns of mothers with a history of drug abuse. It may also occur in newborns whose mothers are undergoing substitution therapy. Objective: To determine the presence of active ear acupuncture points in newborn infants with NAS. Methods: Among newborn infants with NAS admitted to the Division of Neonatology at the University Hospital Graz between March 2009 and November 2014, an acupuncture-point detector (PS3 Silberbauer, Vienna, Austria) was used to identify active ear acupuncture points. An integrated optical and acoustical signal detects the ear points, which were then assigned to the ear map. A total of 31 newborn infants were assessed; 1 infant was excluded, however, because the mother had already weaned herself off opiates before admission. Results: The excluded infant did not develop signs of NAS, had a low Finnegan score (3 points), and did not present any detectable active psychic ear acupuncture points. In all included newborn infants with NAS, active ear acupuncture points were identified: The psychovegetative rim was the most common active somatic area in each infant, followed by a few somatic and psychic ear acupuncture points. In all infants with symptoms of NAS, active psychic ear points were identified, of which the most frequently found points were the Frustration point and the R point. Conclusion: The activity of psychic ear acupuncture points may be specific for neonates with NAS.  
  Address  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score  
  Notes Accession Number: 118649824; Source Information: Oct2016, Vol. 22 Issue 10, p788; Subject Term: EAR -- Physiology; Subject Term: NEONATAL abstinence syndrome -- Treatment; Subject Term: ACUPUNCTURE; Subject Term: ACUPUNCTURE points; Subject Term: APGAR score; Subject Term: BIOPHYSICS; Subject Term: CLINICAL trials; Subject Term: EAR; Subject Term: NEONATAL intensive care; Subject Term: PROBABILITY theory; Subject Term: SAMPLING (Statistics); Subject Term: SCIENTIFIC apparatus & instruments; Subject Term: STATISTICS; Subject Term: DATA analysis; Subject Term: SECONDARY analysis; Subject Term: INTRAVENOUS therapy centers; Subject Term: RANDOMIZED controlled trials; Subject Term: NEONATAL abstinence syndrome; Subject Term: DATA analysis -- Software; Subject Term: DESCRIPTIVE statistics; Subject Term: MANN Whitney U Test; Subject Term: CHILDREN; Subject Term: ; Geographic Subject: AUSTRIA; Geographic Subject: ; Number of Pages: 6p; ; Illustrations: 3 Diagrams, 3 Charts; ; Document Type: Article; Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2262  
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Author Ngai, S.P.C.; Spencer, L.M.; Jones, A.Y.M.; Alison, J.A. url  openurl
  Title (up) Acu-TENS Reduces Breathlessness during Exercise in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM) Abbreviated Journal Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM)  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords DYSPNEA -- Treatment; ACUPUNCTURE points; CONFIDENCE intervals; CROSSOVER trials; Exercise; OBSTRUCTIVE lung diseases; PHYSICAL fitness; TRANSCUTANEOUS electrical nerve stimulation; Walking; RANDOMIZED controlled trials; BLIND experiment; DESCRIPTIVE statistics  
  Abstract Copyright of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is the property of Hindawi Publishing Corporation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)  
  Address  
  Publisher Hindawi Publishing Corporation
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score  
  Notes Accession Number: 121349879; Source Information: 2/20/2017, p1; Subject Term: DYSPNEA -- Treatment; Subject Term: ACUPUNCTURE points; Subject Term: CONFIDENCE intervals; Subject Term: CROSSOVER trials; Subject Term: EXERCISE; Subject Term: OBSTRUCTIVE lung diseases; Subject Term: PHYSICAL fitness; Subject Term: TRANSCUTANEOUS electrical nerve stimulation; Subject Term: WALKING; Subject Term: RANDOMIZED controlled trials; Subject Term: BLIND experiment; Subject Term: DESCRIPTIVE statistics; Subject Term: ; Number of Pages: 7p; ; Illustrations: 2 Color Photographs, 1 Diagram, 2 Charts; ; Document Type: Article; Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2247  
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Author Anastasi, J. K.; Capili, B.; McMahon, D. J.; Scully, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Acu/Moxa for distal sensory peripheral neuropathy in HIV: a randomized control pilot study Type of Study RCT
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC Abbreviated Journal J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 268-275  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Peripheral Neuropathy; HIV Infections; RCT; Pilot Study; Acu Versus Sham; Acupuncture; TCM Acupuncture Style; Sham Control; Penetrating Sham; Superficial Needling Depth; Non Specific Acupoint Control; Restricted Modalities, Acupuncture + Other; Fixed Acupuncture Protocol; Moxa; Indirect Moxibustion; Moxibustion  
  Abstract  
  Address Founding Director, Division of Special Studies in Symptom Management, New York University College of Nursing, New York, New York, USA.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 12  
  Treatment Follow-up 15 Weeks Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 50  
  Time in Treatment 6 Weeks Condition Peripheral Neuropathy
  Disease Category HIV Infections OCSI Score  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 26  
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Author Guo, T.; Ren, Y.; Kou, J.; Shi, J.; Tianxiao, S.; Liang, F. url  openurl
  Title (up) Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM) Abbreviated Journal Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM)  
  Volume 2015 Issue Pages 1-20  
  Keywords OBESITY -- Treatment; Acupuncture; ACUPUNCTURE points; BODY weight; CHI-squared test; CONFIDENCE intervals; Electroacupuncture; INFORMATION storage & retrieval systems -- Medical care; INFORMATION storage & retrieval systems -- Medicine; Medline; META-analysis; Moxibustion; Obesity; ONLINE information services; RESEARCH -- Finance; Sutures; SYSTEMATIC reviews (Medical research); BODY mass index; TREATMENT effectiveness; PUBLICATION bias; ODDS ratio; China  
  Abstract Copyright of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is the property of Hindawi Publishing Corporation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)  
  Address  
  Publisher Hindawi Publishing Corporation
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score  
  Notes Accession Number: 109471061; Source Information: 8/31/2015, Vol. 2015, p1; Subject Term: OBESITY -- Treatment; Subject Term: ACUPUNCTURE; Subject Term: ACUPUNCTURE points; Subject Term: BODY weight; Subject Term: CHI-squared test; Subject Term: CONFIDENCE intervals; Subject Term: ELECTROACUPUNCTURE; Subject Term: INFORMATION storage & retrieval systems -- Medical care; Subject Term: INFORMATION storage & retrieval systems -- Medicine; Subject Term: MEDLINE; Subject Term: META-analysis; Subject Term: MOXIBUSTION; Subject Term: OBESITY; Subject Term: ONLINE information services; Subject Term: RESEARCH -- Finance; Subject Term: SUTURES; Subject Term: SYSTEMATIC reviews (Medical research); Subject Term: BODY mass index; Subject Term: TREATMENT effectiveness; Subject Term: PUBLICATION bias; Subject Term: ODDS ratio; Subject Term: ; Geographic Subject: CHINA; Geographic Subject: ; Number of Pages: 20p; ; Illustrations: 1 Diagram, 27 Charts, 4 Graphs; ; Document Type: Article; Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2243  
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