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Author Allen, J. J.; Schnyer, R. N.; Chambers, A. S.; Hitt, S. K.; Moreno, F. A.; Manber, R. url  openurl
  Title Acupuncture for depression: a randomized controlled trial Type of Study RCT
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of clinical psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 67 Issue 11 Pages 1665-1673  
  Keywords Acu Versus > 1 Control; Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Individualized Acupuncture Protocol; Penetrating Sham; Manualized Acupuncture Protocol; Non Specific Acupoint Control; RCT; Sham Control; Standard Needling Depth; TCM Acupuncture Style; Traditional Diagnosis Based Point Selection; Wait-List Control  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture as an intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Acupuncture was examined in 151 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. The specific intervention involved Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-style acupuncture with manual stimulation for depression; the control conditions consisted of (1) a nonspecific intervention using a comparable number of legitimate acupuncture points not specifically targeted to depressive symptoms and (2) a waitlist condition, which involved waiting without intervention for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, all patients received the depression-specific acupuncture. Each 8-week intervention regimen consisted of 12 acupuncture sessions delivered in an acupuncturist's office in the community. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The study was conducted from February 1998 to April 2002. RESULTS: Twenty patients terminated treatment before the completion of the 8-week intervention (13%) but not differentially by study group. Random regression models of the intent-to-treat sample revealed that although patients receiving acupuncture improved more than those awaiting intervention, no evidence of differential efficacy of the depression-specific over nonspecific intervention was found. Response rates in acupuncture-treated patients were relatively low after 8 weeks (22% and 39% for specific and nonspecific intervention groups, respectively), with the response rate after the entire 16-week trial reaching 50%. CONCLUSION: Although TCM manual acupuncture is a well-tolerated intervention, results fail to support its efficacy as a monotherapy for MDD. It can't be ruled out that factors unique to the implementation of acupuncture in this research study may have limited the efficacy of interventions compared to those provided in naturalistic settings. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00010517  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721-0068, USA. jallen@u.arizona.edu  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 12  
  Treatment Follow-up 16 Weeks Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 151  
  Time in Treatment 8 Weeks Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score (down) 77  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 20  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C. A.; Hay, P. P.; Macpherson, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2010 Publication Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume Issue 1 Pages -  
  Keywords Acupuncture; Depression; Systematic Review; AcuTrials; Mental Disorders; Depressive Disorder  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There is interest from the community in the use of self help and complementary therapies for depression. This review examined the currently available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture to treat depression. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture in the treatment for depression. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched: CCDAN-CTR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to Dec 2008), EMBASE (1980 to Dec 2008), PSYCINFO (1874 to Dec 2008), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), CINAHL (1980 to Dec 2008), Wan Fang database (to Dec 2008). The following terms were used: depression, depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder and acupuncture. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture with sham acupuncture, no treatment, pharmacological treatment, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive behavioural therapy, psychotherapy or counselling), or standard care. The following modes of treatment were included: acupuncture, electro acupuncture or laser acupuncture. The participants included adult men and women with depression defined by clinical state description, or diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Classification of Disease (ICD) or the Criteria for Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Diseases CCMD-3-R. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Meta-analyses were performed using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and standard mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self rating scales, or by clinician rated scales and an improvement in depression defined as remission versus no remission. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update and now contains data from 30 studies. Following recent searches, 23 new studies have been added and a further 11 trials were excluded (due to suboptimal doses of medication, no clinical outcomes, insufficient reporting). Thirty trials with 2,812 participants are included in the meta-analysis.There was a high risk of bias in the majority of trials. There was insufficient evidence of a consistent beneficial effect from acupuncture compared with a wait list control or sham acupuncture control. Two trials found acupuncture may have an additive benefit when combined with medication compared with medication alone. A subgroup of participants with depression as a co-morbidity experienced a reduction in depression with manual acupuncture compared with SSRIs (RR 1.66, 95%CI 1.03, 2.68) (three trials, 94 participants). The majority of trials compared manual and electro acupuncture with medication and found no effect between groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence to recommend the use of acupuncture for people with depression. The results are limited by the high risk of bias in the majority of trials meeting inclusion criteria.  
  Address Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, The University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, New South Wales, Australia, 1797.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved yes  
  Call Number Serial 1067  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ernst, E.; Lee, M. S.; Choi, T. Y. url  openurl
  Title Acupuncture for Depression? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2010 Publication Evaluation & the health professions Abbreviated Journal Eval Health Prof  
  Volume Issue Pages -  
  Keywords AcuTrials; Systematic Review; Mental Disorders; Depressive Disorder; Depression;  
  Abstract Acupuncture is often advocated as a treatment for depression, and several trials have tested its effectiveness. Their results are contradictory and even systematic reviews of these data do not arrive at uniform conclusions. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate all systematic reviews of the subject with a view of assisting clinical decisions. Thirteen electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant articles. Data of these systematic reviews and the primary studies they included were extracted independently by the two authors according to predefined criteria. Eight systematic reviews including seventy-one primary studies were found. Five of the reviews arrived at positive conclusions and three did not. All the positive reviews and most of the positive primary studies originated from China. There are reasons to believe that these reviews are less than reliable. In conclusion, the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment of depression remains unproven and the authors' findings are consistent with acupuncture effects in depression being indistinguishable from placebo effects.  
  Address  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorder OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 298  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Manber, R.; Schnyer, R. N.; Lyell, D.; Chambers, A. S.; Caughey, A. B.; Druzin, M.; Carlyle, E.; Celio, C.; Gress, J. L.; Huang, M. I.; Kalista, T.; Martin-Okada, R.; Allen, J. J. url  openurl
  Title Acupuncture for depression during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial Type of Study RCT
  Year 2010 Publication Obstetrics and gynecology Abbreviated Journal Obstet Gynecol  
  Volume 115 Issue 3 Pages 511-520  
  Keywords Mental Disorders; Depressive Disorder, Major; RCT; Acu Versus > 1 Control; Acu Versus Acu; CAM Control; Massage; Manualized Acupuncture Protocol; Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Depressive Disorder; Women's Health; Depressive Disorder; Depression;  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy of acupuncture for depression during pregnancy in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 150 pregnant women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria for major depressive disorder were randomized to receive either acupuncture specific for depression or one of two active controls: control acupuncture or massage. Treatments lasted 8 weeks (12 sessions). Junior acupuncturists, who were not told about treatment assignment, needled participants at points prescribed by senior acupuncturists. All treatments were standardized. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, administered by masked raters at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Continuous data were analyzed using mixed effects models and by intent to treat. RESULTS: Fifty-two women were randomized to acupuncture specific for depression, 49 to control acupuncture, and 49 to massage. Women who received acupuncture specific for depression experienced a greater rate of decrease in symptom severity (P<.05) compared with the combined controls (Cohen's d=0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.77) or control acupuncture alone (P<.05; Cohen's d=0.46, 95% CI 0.01-0.92). They also had significantly greater response rate (63.0%) than the combined controls (44.3%; P<.05; number needed to treat, 5.3; 95% CI 2.8-75.0) and control acupuncture alone (37.5%; P<.05: number needed to treat, 3.9; 95% CI 2.2-19.8). Symptom reduction and response rates did not differ significantly between controls (control acupuncture, 37.5%; massage, 50.0%). CONCLUSION: The short acupuncture protocol demonstrated symptom reduction and a response rate comparable to those observed in standard depression treatments of similar length and could be a viable treatment option for depression during pregnancy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00186654.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. rmanber@stanford.edu  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments 12  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency >1/WK Number of Participants 150  
  Time in Treatment 8 Weeks Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 814  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mukaino, Y.; Park, J.; White, A.; Ernst, E. url  openurl
  Title The effectiveness of acupuncture for depression--a systematic review of randomised controlled trials Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal Acupunct Med  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 70-76  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Electroacupuncture; Meta-Analysis; Systematic Review; Mental Disorders;  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To summarise the existing evidence on acupuncture as a therapy for depression. METHODS: RCTs were included, in which either manual acupuncture or electroacupuncture was compared with any control procedure in subjects with depression. Data were extracted independently by two authors. The methodological quality was assessed. Pre and post means and SDs for depression specific measures were extracted, when available, for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Seven randomised comparative trials involving 509 patients were included. The evidence is inconsistent on whether manual acupuncture is superior to sham, and suggests that acupuncture was not superior to waiting list. Evidence suggests that the effect of electroacupuncture may not be significantly different from antidepressant medication, weighted mean difference -0.43(95% CI -5.61 to 4.76). There is inconclusive evidence on whether acupuncture has an additive effect when given as an adjunct to antidepressant drugs. CONCLUSION: The evidence from controlled trials is insufficient to conclude whether acupuncture is an effective treatment for depression, but justifies further trials of electroacupuncture  
  Address Department of Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK. mukaino@fukuoka-u.ac.jp  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 892  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schroer, S.; Adamson, J. url  openurl
  Title Acupuncture for Depression: A Critique of the Evidence Base. LID – 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00159.x [doi] Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2010 Publication CNS neuroscience & therapeutics Abbreviated Journal CNS Neurosci Ther  
  Volume Issue Pages -  
  Keywords Systematic Review; Mental Disorders; Depressive Disorder; Depression; Acupuncture; Electroacupuncture; AcuTrials;  
  Abstract Aim: The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for acupuncture's effectiveness as a depression intervention. Unlike other reviews, which consider methodological concerns relevant to all experimental evaluations, this review focuses on the scope of studies, and uses a PICO (patients, intervention, comparison, and outcome) structure to determine what can potentially be learned from primary studies that have already been screened for methodological quality by reviewers. Discussion: The review identified a number of study limitations. (i) Patients: majority of trial reports have not described a rationale for the selection of patients or inclusion/exclusion criteria. Prognostic indicators were not reported and there were also concerns about the generalizability of study populations. (ii) Intervention: most trials investigate poorly rationalized standardized acupuncture protocols thus quality of care may be an issue and generalizability to routine clinical practice is a main concern. In trials using other methods generalizability is also poor. (iii) Comparisons: concerns were raised about using therapeutically inappropriate acupuncture. (iv) Outcomes: short-term focus and the narrow range of outcomes explored. According to more recent systematic review evidence it is probable the shortcomings identified in the PICO review have not been addressed by subsequent research. The concept of model validity, proposed by other researchers, is discussed, and suggestions put forward about complex intervention evaluation methods, which may be better suited to evaluating acupuncture care. Conclusion: Uncertainty remains about the value of acupuncture care, as it is routinely practiced in the West, and this uncertainty has not been resolved by trials to date. Existing evaluations may however be useful for guiding decisions about the value of specific techniques for patients with depression.  
  Address Health Sciences Department, ARRC Building, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Mental Disorders OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1025  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.; Hay, P. url  openurl
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Systematic Review
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume Issue 2 Pages CD004046-  
  Keywords Acupuncture; AcuTrials; Adverse Effects; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Dysthymic Disorder; Laser Acupuncture; Meta-Analysis; Psychological Disorders; Psychotherapy; Systematic Review  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There is interest from the community in the use of self help and complementary therapies for depression. This review examined the currently available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture to treat depression. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy and adverse effects of acupuncture for depression. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) MEDLINE (1966 to Sept 2003) EMBASE (1980 to Sept 2003) PSYCINFO (1874 to Sept 2003) the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) CISCOM, CINAHL (January 1980 to Sept 2003). The following terms were used: depression, depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder and acupuncture. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture with sham acupuncture, no treatment, pharmacological treatment, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive behavioural therapy, psychotherapy or counselling), or standard care. The following modes of treatment were included: acupuncture, electro acupuncture or laser acupuncture. The subjects included adult men and women with depression defined by clinical state description, or diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), or the International Classification of Disease (ICD). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Meta analysis was performed using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self rating scales, or by clinician rated scales; and an improvement in depression defined as remission vs no remission. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials comprising 517 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Five trials (409 subjects) included a comparison between acupuncture and medication. Two other trials compared acupuncture with a wait list control or sham acupuncture. Subjects generally had mild to moderate depression. There was no evidence that medication was better than acupuncture in reducing the severity of depression (WMD 0.53, 95%CI -1.42 to 2.47), or in improving depression, defined as remission versus no remission (RR1.2, 95%CI 0.94 to 1.51). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to determine the efficacy of acupuncture compared to medication, or to wait list control or sham acupuncture, in the management of depression. Scientific study design was poor and the number of people studied was small  
  Address School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia, AUSTRALIA, 5001  
  Publisher
  Language Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up N/A Frequency N/A Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment N/A Condition Depressive Disorder
  Disease Category Systematic Review OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1078  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2426  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2467  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2508  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2549  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2590  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2629  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2670  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2713  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2754  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2795  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2836  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
  Publisher
  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2877  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smith, C.A.; Armour, M.; Lee, M.S.; Wang, L.-Q.; Hay, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acupuncture for depression Type of Study Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages Cd004046  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression.To determine:* Whether acupuncture is more effective than treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than control acupuncture for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than pharmacological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture plus pharmacological therapy is more effective than pharmacological therapy alone for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Whether acupuncture is more effective than psychological therapies for treating and improving quality of life for individuals with depression.* Adverse effects of acupuncture compared with treatment as usual/no treatment/wait list control, control acupuncture, pharmacological therapies, and psychological therapies for treatment of individuals with depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to June 2016: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), DBPIA (Korean article database website), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Research Information Service System (RISS), Korea Med, Korean Medical Database (KM base), and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), as well as several Korean medical journals. SELECTION CRITERIA: Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. MAIN RESULTS: This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive, non-invasive sham controls)Acupuncture may be associated with a small reduction in the severity of depression of 1.69 points on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) by end of treatment (95% CI -3.33 to -0.05, 14 trials, 841 participants; low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86, five trials, 300 participants; moderate-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus medicationWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture may confer small benefit in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.05, 31 trials, 3127 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different classes of medications and different modes of acupuncture stimulation. Very low-quality evidence suggests lower ratings of adverse events following acupuncture compared with medication alone, as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (mean difference (MD) -4.32, 95% CI -7.41 to -1.23, three trials, 481 participants).Acupuncture plus medication versus medication aloneWe found very low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture is highly beneficial in reducing the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -1.15, 95% CI -1.63 to -0.66, 11 trials, 775 participants). Studies show substantial variation resulting from use of different modes of acupuncture stimulation. It is unclear whether differences in adverse events are associated with different modes of acupuncture (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -2.86 to 0.23, three trials, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus psychological therapyIt is unclear whether data show differences between acupuncture and psychological therapy in the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.5, 95% CI -1.33 to 0.33, two trials, 497 participants; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence suggests no differences between groups in rates of adverse events (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.33, one trial, 452 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in severity of depression was less when acupuncture was compared with control acupuncture than when acupuncture was compared with no treatment control, although in both cases, results were rated as providing low-quality evidence. The reduction in severity of depression with acupuncture given alone or in conjunction with medication versus medication alone is uncertain owing to the very low quality of evidence. The effect of acupuncture compared with psychological therapy is unclear. The risk of adverse events with acupuncture is also unclear, as most trials did not report adverse events adequately. Few studies included follow-up periods or assessed important outcomes such as quality of life. High-quality randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to examine the clinical efficacy and acceptability of acupuncture, as well as its effectiveness, compared with acupuncture controls, medication, or psychological therapies.  
  Address National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia, 2751  
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  Language English Number of Treatments  
  Treatment Follow-up Frequency Number of Participants  
  Time in Treatment Condition
  Disease Category OCSI Score (down)  
  Notes PMID:29502347 Approved no  
  Call Number OCOM @ refbase @ Serial 2918  
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